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Using Y-chromosome capture enrichment to resolve haplogroup H2 shows new evidence
#1
Излязло е ново изследване специално за хаплогрупа Н2, която се среща доста често в Неолитна Европа, но е много рядка в съвременното население. Тя няма никаква връзка с циганската Н1а, която се появява в Eвропа едва в Средновековието.
Но изсlедването набляга на нов метод за тестване древна ДНК за мъжка хаплогрупа. Предишните пълен геном с ниско покритие, или по метода на Райх за извличане на 1.24М SNP често не позволява да се определи точно хаплогрупата. Сега са измислили "new DNA enrichment assay, coined YMCA (Y-mappable capture assay), that targets the "mappable" regions of the NRY", който е дал добри резултати. Оказва се. че в неолита в Европа са разпространеи 2 подклона на Н2:
We highlight the improved performance obtained via YMCA by analysing the Y-chromosomal haplogroup H2 (H-P96), a low-frequency YHG that is associated with early farmers during the Neolithic transition in Western Eurasia. We curated a data set of 46 previously published individuals (45 ancient and 1 modern), and 49 newly YMCA-sequenced individuals (all ancient). We show that our current understanding of H2, which is based largely on modern H2 samples (n=20), is inconsistent with the ancient diversity of our H2 individuals. In resolving this ancient haplogroup, we can show two distinct migration paths along the Mediterranean and Danube for Neolithic groups from Anatolia to Western Europe, ultimately resulting in the Mediterranean derived groups also reaching the Atlantic Archipelago/Britain and Ireland/British Isles. 
От българските проби е използвана I2520 от Джюлюница, но и накаква нова проба, изглежда от Юнаците YUN048. 
За съжаление, не мога да намеря в Supplementary table към кой клон са определили YUN048, но I2520, която е всъщност Бронз, излиза някакво друго базално разклонение, несвързано с неолитните.


Using Y-chromosome capture enrichment to resolve haplogroup H2 shows new evidence for a two-Path Neolithic expansion to Western Europe

[color=#484848][font=Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Geneva, sans-serif]Uniparentally-inherited markers on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome (NRY), have been used for the past 30 years to investigate the history of humans from a maternal and paternal perspective. Researchers have preferred mtDNA due to its abundance in the cells, and comparatively high substitution rate. Conversely, the NRY is less susceptible to back mutations and saturation, and is potentially more informative than mtDNA owing to its longer sequence length. However, due to comparatively poor NRY coverage via shotgun sequencing, and the relatively low and biased representation of Y-chromosome variants on capture arrays such as the 1240K, ancient DNA studies often fail to utilize the unique perspective that the NRY can yield. Here we introduce a new DNA enrichment assay, coined YMCA (Y-mappable capture assay), that targets the "mappable" regions of the NRY. We show that compared to low-coverage shotgun sequencing and 1240K capture, YMCA significantly improves the coverage and number of sites hit on the NRY, increasing the number of Y-haplogroup informative SNPs, and allowing for the identification of previously undiscovered variants. To illustrate the power of YMCA, we show that the analysis of ancient Y-chromosome lineages can help to resolve Y-chromosomal haplogroups. As a case study, we focus on H2, a haplogroup associated with a critical event in European human history: the Neolithic transition. By disentangling the evolutionary history of this haplogroup, we further elucidate the two separate paths by which early farmers expanded from Anatolia and the Near East to western Europe.


Прикачени файла Малки снимки
   
МтДнк: Т2
 
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#2
Изглежда лабораторията на института Макс Планк в ще публикува нови изследвания с наши кости.
Предполагам, че са пратили много кости от Юнаците, поне 50, ако се съди по номера YUN048, споменат е и Явор Бояджиев като съавтор. Но в това изследване е включена само една, доказана Н2.
МтДнк: Т2
 
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