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The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years
Излязла е публикацията за Иберийския полуостров, която се споменаваше в лекцията на др. Райх, но изглежда и няколко други на същата тема.
Вижда се колко полезно е да се изследват едновременно кости от всички исторически периоди, а не само откъслечни оттук-оттам. надявам се да излезе нещо подобно и за Балканите.
Палеолита и Неолита в Испания е подобен на други в Европа, но през Бронза има меочаквана подмяна на населението, което не е отразено толкова в археологическите култури. Особено старите мъжки хаплогрупи изчезват почти напълно - до 100%, докато аутозомно населението се променя само 40%. Пак се дискутира дали старото мъжко население е буквално избито, или просто са му отнели жените и те не са могали да се размножават достатъчно. Друго интересно е, че макар уж идоевропейците да изместват генетично старото население, в Испания се говорят доста дълго неиндоеропейски езици, вкл. Баския до наши дни.



We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. 

Survival of Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Ancestry in the Survival of Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Ancestry in the Iberian PeninsulaIberian Peninsula

Тhe Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe represents an important test case for the study of human population movements during prehistoric periods. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the peninsula formed a periglacial refugium for hunter-gatherers (HGs) and thus served as a potential source for the re-peopling of northern latitudes. The post-LGM genetic signature was previously described as a cline from Western HG (WHG) to Eastern HG (EHG), further shaped by later Holocene expansions from the Near East and the North Pontic steppes. Western and central Europe were dominated by ancestry associated with the ∼14,000-year-old individual from Villabruna, Italy, which had largely replaced earlier genetic ancestry, represented by 19,000–15,000-year-old individuals associated with the Magdalenian culture. However, little is known about the genetic diversity in southern European refugia, the presence of distinct genetic clusters, and correspondence with geography. Here, we report new genome-wide data from 11 HGs and Neolithic individuals that highlight the late survival of Paleolithic ancestry in Iberia, reported previously in Magdalenian-associated individuals. We show that all Iberian HGs, including the oldest, a ∼19,000-year-old individual from El Mirón in Spain, carry dual ancestry from both Villabruna and the Magdalenian-related individuals. Thus, our results suggest an early connection between two potential refugia, resulting in a genetic ancestry that survived in later Iberian HGs. Our new genomic data from Iberian Early and Middle Neolithic individuals show that the dual Iberian HG genomic legacy pertains in the peninsula, suggesting that expanding farmers mixed with local HGs.

[Снимка: 54463111_10216044460196664_5999296927068...e=5D18564B]
МтДнк: Т2

"In contrast to the demographic changes in theC lassical period, movements into Iberia during the decline of the Roman Empire had less long-term demographic impact. Nevertheless, individual sites—for example, the 6th century site of Pla del'Horta in the northeast—bear witness to eventsin this period.. These individuals, archaeologically interpreted as Visigoths, are shifted from those at L'Esquerda in the direction of Northern and Central Europe (Figs. 1D and 2C and table S18), and we observe the Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup C4a1a also found in Early Medieval Bavaria (20), supporting a recent link to groups with ancestry originally derived from Central and Eastern Europe."

M U5a1a1d BT
F J1c3g ..
M H1e2 E1b1b1a1b1a
M C4a1a+195 R1b1a1a2a1
F W6a ..
M U5b1b1d J2a
F J2b1a+16311 ..
F C4a1a+195 ..
Всъщност доминирането на мъжките групи, почти всички R1b-269+, дошли през Бронзовия пероод в Иберия може да се обясни не толкова с кръвожадността на нашествениците, а с болестите, които те са донесли, за които местните нямали имунитет. Това би напомняло много латиноамериканската история, когато малък брой конквистадори успяват да покорят огромно местно население не толкова с бойните си умения, а с болестите, които донасят. Вероятно донесената страшна болест е чумата, вече излязоха изследвания, че тя е върлувала още в края на неолита, с което може да се обясни и хилядата години хиатус в някои райони в Европа.
Оцелели са само новодошлите ямненци/индоевропейци, както и метисите с местното население. Но те са се смесвали екслузивно, както латиноиамериканците, местни жени с новодошли мъже, затова старите мъжки хаплогрупи почти изчезват, особено в Западна Европа.
МтДнк: Т2

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