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A 12,000-year Genetic History of Rome and the Italian Peninsula
#1
Много хора се чудеха, че като се хвърляха толкова усилия да се тестват страи кости в Европа, се наблягаше главно на палеолита, неолита и периферни райони, които нямат голяма връзка с по-съвременна история. Специално никой не искаше да се тества древните египтяни, гърци и римляни, или се правеха откъслечни проучвания.
Най-сетне изглежда италианците са се вразумили и готвят голяма публикация, но засега има само абстракт, докладван на конференция:
 
A 12,000-year Genetic History of Rome and the Italian Peninsula - Hannah Moots

Ancient DNA has become a powerful tool for studying the human past. This talk highlights our team’s multidisciplinary approach to analyzing new genomic evidence from Rome and the Italian Peninsula in the context of the extensive archaeological and historical record of the region. We have built a time series of 134 ancient genomes that spans the last 12,000 years, from the Upper Paleolithic to the present, allowing us to present a contextually-situated discussion of genomic changes through time. This approach allows us to study changes ranging from individual traits of interest, such as lactase persistence, to broad population-level shifts. We see evidence that as Rome grew from a small city to an empire encompassing the entirety of the Mediterranean - or Mare Nostrum, ‘our sea’, as the Romans called it - and beyond, the city of Rome became a mosaic of inhabitants from across the empire and remained so even after the fragmentation of the Western Roman Empire. I will illustrate these general trends with case studies, such as paleogenomic data from Isola Sacra, the necropolis for the port towns of Ostia and Portus, in which contextualizing archaeological and textual evidence have been instrumental in understanding the genetic structure of the Roman population in our study.

Някои, присъствали на конференцията са се опитали да запишат какво е казала авторката на презентацията. Както личи, дискутирани са само автозомни данни, не се споменават хаплогрупи:

Presentation by Hannah Moots. No pictures, not allowed. Paper coming out in a couple of months, done with Pinhasi and Pritchard.
134 genomes, spanning 12000s BP to Renaissance and enlightenment. 0.5-3.5X coverage. Vast majority of sampling sites concentrated in Rome and surrounds, lowlands of Latium around the Tiber River, up to Ostia, almost all restricted to Lazio. Some extend to Abruzzo, South Le Marche, none, or maybe one, in Tuscany, and on the South of Tuscany if that. Couple of samples from Sardinia. I'll give a PCA position and a ADMIXTURE description for each time period. Note that the ADMIXTURE only had Iranian, EEF, WHG, EHG and Levant_N, no CHG. Where Iran N appears, it may be a stand-in for CHG. There is something quite puzzling in the list below, mislabeling in the slides? But that doesn't explain it either.

UPPER PALEOLITHIC
All WHG

NEOLITHIC
Mostly EEF, some WHG. Some Iran_N, quite a significant quantity, as much as WHG. PCA position Between Sardinia and Maltese, east of Sardinia, closer to Sardinia than to Maltese. Very homogeneous.

BRONZE AGE (EARLY)
Overlaps modern-day Sardinia, Iran_N percentage declines, WHG and EEF increases
(Note that this represents a Europeanisation of the gene pool!) Very homogeneous.

IRON AGE TO REPUBLICAN PERIOD (700-20BC)
Note: Separated from previous period by 1000 year gap.
Fewer samples, of those that exist 60% overlap with North Italy, 40% overlap with South Italy and Sicily, centroid of overall cluster in central Italy but no samples occur there, very wide spread.
EHG appears, Levant N Appears for the first time, sporadic and inhomogeneous distribution, Iran_N increases further.

IMPERIAL PERIOD
Dense cluster centroid between Greeks, Cypriots, South Italians/Sicilians, and Syrians, closest to Sicilians. Long tail stretching from central cluster to Syrians and Iraqi Jews. Couple of Northern-shifted samples overlapping N Italy, France, Spain.
Iran_N increases further, Levant N again sporadic and inhomogeneous.

LATE ANTIQUITY
Tight cluster centroid in S Italy, in the same place as in the previous period. Southern tail to Middle East disappears. N Italian, Northern European and NW European outliers exist.

AFTER
Resemble modern central Italians.
Lactase persistence alleles appear abruptly after 0 AD.
Heterozygosity reaches modern level after Iron Age.
No information given on uniparentals.
Isotope information not available yet, no way apart from archaeological context to tell between migrants and locals.
Represents a preliminary effort, more work coming later.
МтДнк: Т2
 
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#2
(02-21-2019, 03:30 AM)genefan Писа: Много хора се чудеха, че като се хвърляха толкова усилия да се тестват страи кости в Европа, се наблягаше главно на палеолита, неолита и периферни райони, които нямат голяма връзка с по-съвременна история. Специално никой не искаше да се тества древните египтяни, гърци и римляни, или се правеха откъслечни проучвания.
Най-сетне изглежда италианците са се вразумили и готвят голяма публикация, но засега има само абстракт, докладван на конференция:
 
A 12,000-year Genetic History of Rome and the Italian Peninsula - Hannah Moots

Ancient DNA has become a powerful tool for studying the human past. This talk highlights our team’s multidisciplinary approach to analyzing new genomic evidence from Rome and the Italian Peninsula in the context of the extensive archaeological and historical record of the region. We have built a time series of 134 ancient genomes that spans the last 12,000 years, from the Upper Paleolithic to the present, allowing us to present a contextually-situated discussion of genomic changes through time. This approach allows us to study changes ranging from individual traits of interest, such as lactase persistence, to broad population-level shifts. We see evidence that as Rome grew from a small city to an empire encompassing the entirety of the Mediterranean - or Mare Nostrum, ‘our sea’, as the Romans called it - and beyond, the city of Rome became a mosaic of inhabitants from across the empire and remained so even after the fragmentation of the Western Roman Empire. I will illustrate these general trends with case studies, such as paleogenomic data from Isola Sacra, the necropolis for the port towns of Ostia and Portus, in which contextualizing archaeological and textual evidence have been instrumental in understanding the genetic structure of the Roman population in our study.

Някои, присъствали на конференцията са се опитали да запишат какво е казала авторката на презентацията. Както личи, дискутирани са само автозомни данни, не се споменават хаплогрупи:

Presentation by Hannah Moots. No pictures, not allowed. Paper coming out in a couple of months, done with Pinhasi and Pritchard.
134 genomes, spanning 12000s BP to Renaissance and enlightenment. 0.5-3.5X coverage. Vast majority of sampling sites concentrated in Rome and surrounds, lowlands of Latium around the Tiber River, up to Ostia, almost all restricted to Lazio. Some extend to Abruzzo, South Le Marche, none, or maybe one, in Tuscany, and on the South of Tuscany if that. Couple of samples from Sardinia. I'll give a PCA position and a ADMIXTURE description for each time period. Note that the ADMIXTURE only had Iranian, EEF, WHG, EHG and Levant_N, no CHG. Where Iran N appears, it may be a stand-in for CHG. There is something quite puzzling in the list below, mislabeling in the slides? But that doesn't explain it either.

UPPER PALEOLITHIC
All WHG

NEOLITHIC
Mostly EEF, some WHG. Some Iran_N, quite a significant quantity, as much as WHG. PCA position Between Sardinia and Maltese, east of Sardinia, closer to Sardinia than to Maltese. Very homogeneous.

BRONZE AGE (EARLY)
Overlaps modern-day Sardinia, Iran_N percentage declines, WHG and EEF increases
(Note that this represents a Europeanisation of the gene pool!) Very homogeneous.

IRON AGE TO REPUBLICAN PERIOD (700-20BC)
Note: Separated from previous period by 1000 year gap.
Fewer samples, of those that exist 60% overlap with North Italy, 40% overlap with South Italy and Sicily, centroid of overall cluster in central Italy but no samples occur there, very wide spread.
EHG appears, Levant N Appears for the first time, sporadic and inhomogeneous distribution, Iran_N increases further.

IMPERIAL PERIOD
Dense cluster centroid between Greeks, Cypriots, South Italians/Sicilians, and Syrians, closest to Sicilians. Long tail stretching from central cluster to Syrians and Iraqi Jews. Couple of Northern-shifted samples overlapping N Italy, France, Spain.
Iran_N increases further, Levant N again sporadic and inhomogeneous.

LATE ANTIQUITY
Tight cluster centroid in S Italy, in the same place as in the previous period. Southern tail to Middle East disappears. N Italian, Northern European and NW European outliers exist.

AFTER
Resemble modern central Italians.
Lactase persistence alleles appear abruptly after 0 AD.
Heterozygosity reaches modern level after Iron Age.
No information given on uniparentals.
Isotope information not available yet, no way apart from archaeological context to tell between migrants and locals.
Represents a preliminary effort, more work coming later.
Прави впечатление нулевата връзка с Балканите. Генетиците от Болоня, чиято нова публикация със 110-120 нови български проби, с прецизна регионална генеалогия, която чакаме от 2 години с нетърпение, в предишната си публикация за южна Италия и средиземноморското генетично единство, предположиха, че Балканите са извадени от този континум с нашествието на славяните в континенталната част на Гърция и Албания, по време на четвъртата и петата вълна на славянизация, като петата вълна е предизвикана от българизацията на Тракия, Родопите и Македония по времето на канасубигитата Омуртаг, Маламир и Пресиян. Аз на времето предположих, че това е само финализиране на процеса, който е започнал 2 000 години по-рано с тракизацията и илиризацията на полуострова от север. Та продължаваме да чакаме статията и резултатите от Италианското изследване, та да видим аз ли ще съм прав или професионалистите от Болоня.
EU-92
R-YP617*(341019,YF02433)
E-V13-BY4523(364883, YF05703)
R1a-Z93-Y15121-Y5271*(364878, YF06450)
J2a-M67-PH2758(366674, YSEQ2606)
J2a-L25-PF5350*(364879, YSEQ2347)
E-V13-FGC11450*(407620,YSEQ3598)
I2a-Y3548*(366675, YF07848)
I2a-Y3548*(414297, YF07821)
U4c1a
 
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