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Тука става по-ясно за какво иде реч:

Biparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA in Humans.

Shiyu Luo, C. Alexander Valencia, Jinglan Zhang, Ni-Chung Lee, Jesse Slone, Baoheng Gui, Xinjian Wang, Zhuo Li, Sarah Dell, Jenice Brown, Stella Maris Chen, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Pi-Chuan Fan, Lee-Jun Wong, Paldeep S. Atwal, and Taosheng Huang

Edited by Douglas C. Wallace, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, and approved October 29, 2018 (received for review June 26, 2018)

PNAS published ahead of print November 26, 2018
Сперматозоида има малко митохондрии в опашката, но дали влизат и те след главата в яйцеклетката, не е ясно, поне в общия случай, не.
МтДнк: Т2
Нов препринт -  Population structure of modern-day Italians reveals patterns of ancient and archaic ancestries in Southern Europe

На бърз прочит - интересна е  Fig. S2. fineSTRUCTURE dendrogram of all the 4,852 (A, FMD) and 1,641 (B, HDD) samples.  Each tip of the dendrograms represents a group of individuals with similar copying vectors. The first number of each tip label refers to the total number of individuals in the cluster. This value is followed by “ ” and the name of the three most representative geographically-assigned populations, each with its number of samples. At the end, within brackets, the name given to the cluster. Thick lines in black refer to the Italian clusters. The details of cluster assignation are reported in data file S2. 

в тази диаграма има и български проби, не знам дали са от нашите събрани или от преди това от други проучвания. Между авторите не открих от екипа от университета в Болоня.

Ние сме в клъстър SEEurope1,  SEEurope2  и _3.
Не исках да отварям нова тема, за това тук -   съобщение за Interim Policy on Forensic Genetic Genealogical DNA Analysis and Searching

Department of Justice Announces Interim Policy on Emerging Method to Generate Leads for Unsolved Violent Crimes
Today, the Department of Justice announced its Interim Policy on forensic genetic genealogy (FGG), an emerging investigative technique that will combine technological advancements in DNA analysis and searching with traditional geneology research. FGG is a unique investigative method that can generate leads used by law enforcement to not only identify unknown suspects but to help identify the remains of homicide victims.

“Prosecuting violent crimes is a Department priority for many reasons, including to ensure public safety and to bring justice and closure to victims and victims’ families,” said Deputy Attorney General Jeffrey A. Rosen. “We cannot fulfill our mission if we cannot identify the perpetrators. Forensic genetic genealogy gets us that much closer to being able to solve the formerly unsolvable. But we must not prioritize this investigative advancement above our commitments to privacy and civil liberties; and that is why we have released our Interim Policy – to provide guidance on maintaining that crucial balance.”

The Department’s policy, which will go into effect on Nov. 1, 2019, is designed to balance the Department’s relentless commitment to solving violent crimes and protecting public safety against equally important public interests – such as preserving the privacy and civil liberties of all citizens. In order to do so, the Department’s Interim Policy on Forensic Genetic Genealogical DNA Analysis and Searching (found at www.justice.gov/forensics) provides the first comprehensive guidance to law enforcement on the use of FGG.

The Interim Policy contains nine sections that lay out critical requirements for the use of FGG by law enforcement, including the collaborative interdisciplinary use of the technique, the criteria a case must meet in order to use FGG, and how the practice is used to generate leads for unsolved crimes.

As genetic genealogy websites become more popular and individuals continue to voluntarily submit their DNA or enter their genetic profiles onto publically available genetic genealogy sites, the more biological information there is to compare with DNA samples from crime scenes.

In essence, a DNA sample taken from the scene of a violent crime that does not match any samples available in the FBI’s Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) will not generate a lead for law enforcement. FGG provides an alternative option. However, FGG requires a type of DNA testing that Department laboratories currently do not perform, so the sample must be outsourced to a vender laboratory. After the vender laboratory completes a more comprehensive analysis on the sample, the resulting genetic profile is entered into one or more publicly-available genetic genealogy services and compared by automation against the genetic profiles of individuals who have voluntarily submitted their own samples. The computer’s algorithm then evaluates potential familial relationships between the sample donor and the website’s users. If an association is detected, it generates a lead. Subsequently, law enforcement can use that lead to advance their investigation using traditional investigative and genealogical methods.  

The personal genetic information is not transferred, retrieved, downloaded, or retained by the genetic genealogy users – including law enforcement. And before FGG is an option, all other available techniques, including a search of CODIS, must be exhausted.

A final Department policy on forensic genetic genealogy will be issued in 2020.
Department of Justice Announces Interim Policy on Emerging Method to Generate Leads for Unsolved Violent Crimes

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