Форум за Българска ДНК Генеалогия

Оригинален вид: Ancient DNA sheds light on the genetic origins of early Iron Age Philistines
В момента разглеждате олекотената версия. Вижте оригиналния вид с форматирано съдържание.
The ancient Mediterranean port-city of Ashkelon, identified as “Philistine” during the Iron Age, underwent a dramatic cultural change between the Late Bronze- and the early Iron- Age. It has been long debated whether this change was driven by a substantial movement of people, possibly linked to a larger migration of the so-called “Sea Peoples”. Here, we report genome-wide data of ten Bronze- and Iron- Age individuals from Ashkelon. We find that the early Iron Age population was genetically distinct due to a European related admixture. Interestingly, this genetic signal is no longer detectible in the later Iron Age population. Our results support that a migration event occurred during the Bronze- to Iron- Age transition in Ashkelon but did not leave a long-lasting genetic signature.
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/7/eaax0061



Това изследване се занимава с произхода на филистимляните, известни ни от Библията като традиционни врагове на евреите (подвизите на Самсон и Давид са воювайки с тях)
Тествани са скелети от древното пристанище Ашкелон, но само 10 са дали долу-горе добри резултати. Заключенията са, че има промяна на населението от края на Бронзовия век към ачалото на Железния, като филистимляните изглежда имат повече европейска смесица в сравнение с по-древните и съвремени левантийци. Спекулира се, че филистимляните може би са от така наречените "морски" народи и приличат на древните микенци.

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Тъй като геномите са вече публикувани, ентусиастът Тед Кандел е дешифрирал мъжките хаплогрупи като 
ASH008 ASH066 J1-Z2331
ASH067 R1b-M269
ASH087 L-M20
Излезли са наведнъж няколко изследвания за древни кости от Близкия Изток и Югозападна Азия:

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092...20)30572-9
Filling Important Gaps in the Genomic History of Southwest Asia
Ludovic Orlando
Many crucial developments in human prehistory occurred in Southwest Asia, including the transition to agriculture as well as the emergence of writing and of the earliest civilization. Two new studies in this issue of Cell map the genetic composition of human groups inhabiting the region during the sixth and first millennia Before Common Era (BCE) and uncover periods of significant population turnover.

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092...20)30509-2
Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus
Eirini Skourtanioti,Yilmaz S. Erdal, Marcella Frangipane, Francesca Balossi Restelli, K. Aslıhan Yener, Frances Pinnock, Paolo Matthiae, Rana Özbal, Ulf-Dietrich Schoop, Farhad Guliyev, Tufan Akhundov, Bertille Lyonnet, Emily L. Hammer, Selin E. Nugent, Marta Burri, Gunnar U. Neumann, Sandra Penske, Tara Ingman, Murat Akar, Rula Shafiq, Giulio Palumbi, Stefanie Eisenmann, Marta D’Andrea, Adam B. Rohrlach, Christina Warinner, Choongwon Jeong, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Wolfgang Haak, Johannes Krause
Highlights
Genome-wide analysis of 110 ancient individuals from the Near East
Gene pools of Anatolia and Caucasus were biologically connected ∼6500 BCE
Gene flow from neighboring populations in Northern Levant during 3rd millennium BCE
One individual of likely Central Asian origin in 2nd millennium BCE Northern Levant
Summary
Here, we report genome-wide data analyses from 110 ancient Near Eastern individuals spanning the Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age, a period characterized by intense interregional interactions for the Near East. We find that 6th millennium BCE populations of North/Central Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus shared mixed ancestry on a genetic cline that formed during the Neolithic between Western Anatolia and regions in today’s Southern Caucasus/Zagros. During the Late Chalcolithic and/or the Early Bronze Age, more than half of the Northern Levantine gene pool was replaced, while in the rest of Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, we document genetic continuity with only transient gene flow. Additionally, we reveal a genetically distinct individual within the Late Bronze Age Northern Levant. Overall, our study uncovers multiple scales of population dynamics through time, from extensive admixture during the Neolithic period to long-distance mobility within the globalized societies of the Late Bronze Age.

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092...20)30487-6
The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant
Lily Agranat-Tamir, Shamam Waldman, Mario A.S. Martin, David Gokhman, Nadav Mishol, Tzilla Eshel, Olivia Cheronet, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Nicole Adamski, Ann Marie Lawson, Matthew Mah, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Francesca Candilio, Denise Keating, Beatriz Gamarra, Shay Tzur, Mario Novak, Rachel Kalisher, Shlomit Bechar, Vered Eshed, Douglas J. Kennett, Marina Faerman, Naama Yahalom-Mack, Janet M. Monge, Yehuda Govrin, Yigal Erel, Benjamin Yakir, Ron Pinhasi, Shai Carmi, Israel Finkelstein, Liran Carmel, David Reich
Highlights
Analysis of genome-wide data for nine sites from the Bronze Age Southern Levant
Contemporaneous samples from multiple sites are genetically similar
Migration from the Zagros and/or Caucasus to the Levant between 2500–1000 BCE
People related to these individuals contributed to all present-day Levantine populations
Summary
We report genome-wide DNA data for 73 individuals from five archaeological sites across the Bronze and Iron Ages Southern Levant. These individuals, who share the “Canaanite” material culture, can be modeled as descending from two sources: (1) earlier local Neolithic populations and (2) populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros or the Bronze Age Caucasus. The non-local contribution increased over time, as evinced by three outliers who can be modeled as descendants of recent migrants. We show evidence that different “Canaanite” groups genetically resemble each other more than other populations. We find that Levant-related modern populations typically have substantial ancestry coming from populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros and the Bronze Age Southern Levant. These groups also harbor ancestry from sources we cannot fully model with the available data, highlighting the critical role of post-Bronze-Age migrations into the region over the past 3,000 years.

https://www.cell.com/ajhg/fulltext/S0002...20)30155-5
A Genetic History of the Near East from an aDNA Time Course Sampling Eight Points in the Past 4,000 Years
Marc Haber, Joyce Nassar, Mohamed A. Almarri, Tina Saupe, Lehti Saag, Samuel J. Griffith, Claude Doumet-Serhal, Julien Chanteau, Muntaha Saghieh-Beydoun, Yali Xue, Christiana L. Scheib , Chris Tyler-Smith
The Iron and Classical Ages in the Near East were marked by population expansions carrying cultural transformations that shaped human history, but the genetic impact of these events on the people who lived through them is little-known. Here, we sequenced the whole genomes of 19 individuals who each lived during one of four time periods between 800 BCE and 200 CE in Beirut on the Eastern Mediterranean coast at the center of the ancient world’s great civilizations. We combined these data with published data to traverse eight archaeological periods and observed any genetic changes as they arose. During the Iron Age (∼1000 BCE), people with Anatolian and South-East European ancestry admixed with people in the Near East. The region was then conquered by the Persians (539 BCE), who facilitated movement exemplified in Beirut by an ancient family with Egyptian-Lebanese admixed members. But the genetic impact at a population level does not appear until the time of Alexander the Great (beginning 330 BCE), when a fusion of Asian and Near Easterner ancestry can be seen, paralleling the cultural fusion that appears in the archaeological records from this period. The Romans then conquered the region (31 BCE) but had little genetic impact over their 600 years of rule. Finally, during the Ottoman rule (beginning 1516 CE), Caucasus-related ancestry penetrated the Near East. Thus, in the past 4,000 years, three limited admixture events detectably impacted the population, complementing the historical records of this culturally complex region dominated by the elite with genetic insights from the general population.
Third paper courtesy of Rozenfeld

https://www.shh.mpg.de/1707001/anatolian-dna
Press Release from Max Planck Institute
Human Mobility and Western Asia’s Early State-Level Societies
Archaeogenomic analysis of Anatolia, Northern Levant and the Southern Caucasus sheds light on population dynamics from the Neolithic to Bronze Age, as peoples transitioned from farming to pastoralist communities and early state-level societies.
MAY 28, 2020
The regions of Anatolia, the Northern Levant and the Caucasus played important roles in the development of complex social and cultural models during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age. Through genomic analysis of 110 individuals ranging from 7500 to 3000 years ago, this study sheds light on how human mobility accompanied the spread of ideas and material culture prior to and during the emergence of some of the world’s earliest state-level societies.
Това са хаплогрупите от The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant:

M J H20a 2334-2149 calBCE (3810±20 BP, PSUAMS-2167)
M J K 1971-1782 calBCE (3560±20 BP, OS-139225)
M J T2e 1950-1800 BCE
F n/a (female) .. 1950-1800 BCE
M J2a1b1 H+152 1527-1439 calBCE (3220±20 BP, OS-139223)
M J H14a 1496-1302 calBCE (3135±30 BP, Poz-83433)
M J1a2b H2a2a 1800-1650 BCE
M J1a2b U2d 1800-1650 BCE
M J2a J1d1a1 1623-1518 calBCE (3295±20 BP, PSUAMS-4852)
M J1a2b U2e1b 1600-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) U2e1b 1600-1500 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) J1d 1600-1500 BCE
M R U3b 1600-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) U3b 1600-1500 BCE
M E1b1b1b2a1 T2c1+146 1550-1450 BCE
M E1b1b1b2a1a T2c1+146 1550-1450 BCE
F n/a (female) N1b1a2 1900-1700 BCE
M J1a2b N1b1 1900-1700 BCE
M J1a2b T1a 1880-1700 calBCE (3470±20 BP, OS-139224)
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) .. 1732-1451 calBCE (3300±55 BP, RTK-6767)
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) .. 1700-1600 BCE
M J1a2b T2b7a 1700-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) T2 1688-1535 calBCE (3338±21 BP, RTK-7899)
F n/a (female) U1a1a3 1650-1550 BCE
M J .. 1638-1413 calBCE (3240±55 BP, RTK-6765)
M J K1a18 1600-1500 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) X 1600-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) T1a 1600-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) T2c1a 1600-1500 BCE
F n/a (female) .. 1600-1500 BCE
M R1b1a1a2 J2a2a2 1600-1500 BCE
M J U3b 1600-1278 calBCE (3160±55 BP, RTK-6766)
M T1a1a1b2 HV2a1 1550-1300 BCE
M J1a2b H5'36 1509-1432 calBCE (3207±20 BP, RTK-7898)
M J1 K1a 1107-923 calBCE (2845±25 BP, PSUAMS-2166)
M T1a1a1b2b2b1a1a2 X2 1011-846 calBCE (2790±30 BP, Poz-83471)
M J1a2b HV1b3 1800-1700 BCE
M E1b1b1b2a1 R0a2 1800-1700 BCE
F n/a (female) N1b1b 1450-1250 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) n/a (<2x mtDNA coverage) 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) T1a 2500-2000 BCE
M J T1a2 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) U1a1 2500-2000 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) n/a (<2x mtDNA coverage) 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) n/a (<2x mtDNA coverage) 2500-2000 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) .. 2500-2000 BCE
M n/a (<50000 autosomal SNPs) H40a 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) J1c2i 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) .. 2500-2000 BCE
M J .. 2500-2000 BCE
M J2b N1b1a2 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) n/a (<2x mtDNA coverage) 2500-2000 BCE
F n/a (female) U3a2a 1550-1150 BCE
M J1a2b N1b1a 1550-1150 BCE
M J1a2b N1b1a2 1412-1234 calBCE (3065±30 BP, PSUAMS-1992)
F n/a (female) N1b1a 1409-1265 calBCE (3070±25 BP, PSUAMS-1991)
M J1a2b U3b3 1550-1150 BCE
M J1a2b U3b1a 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) H23 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) H1+152 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) U3a3 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) U3b3 1550-1150 BCE
M J1a2b U3b 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) H 1550-1150 BCE
M J1a2b T2c1a 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) T2c1a 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) U1a'c 1550-1150 BCE
M J U4a 1550-1150 BCE
F n/a (female) I5 1496-1396 calBCE (3155±20 BP, PSUAMS-3720)
M J1a2b J1b2 1492-1303 calBCE (3130±25 BP, PSUAMS-1987)
M J1a2b N2a1 1428-1293 calBCE (3100±25 BP, PSUAMS-1989)
M J1a2b L0f2b 1424-1288 calBCE (3095±25 BP, PSUAMS-1990)
M J1a2b T1a1 1384-1213 calBCE (3025±20 BP, PSUAMS-3719)

Вижда се, че още тогава там си преобладава J1 с по-малко J2a и J2b. При Е-тата няма V13, всички са изглежда под E-34.
Това пък са хаплогрупите от Бронзовия век в Анадола, Южен Кавказ и Северен Левант. Тук са по-разнообразни, прави впечатление присъствието на хаплогрупа Н2, която я има много и в Неолитна Европа, изглежда е привнесена от Анадола, но изглежда напълно липсва в съвременното населението в района и на Балканите.

Supplemental Information for Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus

Table S9
Assignment of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial Haplogroups, Related to STAR Methods Sex determination and uniparental haplotypes.

Individual ID Y-Haplogroup Terminal SNP Haplogroup
ALA001 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847 X2
ALA002 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847 N1a3a2
ALA004 J2a1a1a2b2a1b~ PF4843/Z2324 X2e2a
ALA008 H2 P96 H6a1b
ALA009 J1c3
ALA011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847 X2d
ALA013 H47
ALA014 J2b1 M205 H14b
ALA015 T1a1a CTS11451 K1a
ALA016 I2
ALA017 U1a1d
ALA018 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847 HV1b3b
ALA019 H2a3
ALA020 H6a
ALA023 N1b1a
ALA024 U3b
ALA025 H
ALA026 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847 T1a
ALA028 K1a17
ALA029 T2
ALA030 H5a1j
ALA034 H13a2b2
ALA035 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847 H20a
ALA037 W3b
ALA038 J1b3b1
ALA039 K1a+150
ALA084 L2 L595
ALA095 J2b2~ CTS6812/Z2454 HV
ALX002 G1 M342 K1a12a1a
ART001 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132 H14b3
ART004 G M201/PF2957 H
ART005 J1c
ART009 K1a28
ART010 U8b1a1
ART011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847 T2c1
ART012 N1a1a1a
ART014 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285 X2i+@225
ART015 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795 U1a1d
ART017 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847 T2c1+146
ART018 J1a2b1~ Z1842 H14a+146
ART019 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132 K1a3
ART020 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396 J1c16
ART022 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847 J1c
ART023 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396 U3b1
ART024 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285 X2i+@225
ART026 K1a8b
ART027 J2a1a1a2b1b M319 T1
ART032 H2 P96 N1b1a2
ART038 R1b1a2 V1636 K1a17a
ART039 I5a
ART042 H2 P96 T1b
CBT001 T2b
CBT002 K1a3
CBT003
CBT004 HV1
CBT005 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285 K1a
CBT010 K1a
CBT011 K1a
CBT013 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729 HV1
CBT014 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729 H5
CBT015 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729 U3a2
CBT016 K1a3
CBT017 K1a3
CBT018 X2
ETM001 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
ETM004
ETM005 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
ETM006 U3b3
ETM010 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795 J1b1b1
ETM012 J1a2a1a2d2b~ CTS5266/PF4870/Z2321 T2c1+146
ETM014 U3b2a1
ETM016 U8b1a2b
ETM018 G2a P287/PF3140 J1b1b1
ETM023 H14a
ETM026 T1a1 L162/Page21 K1a4
IKI002 J1c16
IKI009 J2a1
IKI012
IKI016 I5
IKI017
IKI024 J2a1 PF4610 U1b1
IKI030
IKI034 K1a17
IKI036 J2b1c
IKI037 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
IKI038 X1'2'3
KRD001 H2 P96
KRD002 G2a2 CTS4367/L1259/M3308/PF2970
KRD003 J1a2a~ AM01306/CTS1797/PF4689/Z2356
KRD004
KRD005 CT -NA- low coverage
KRD006
MTT001 U7
POT002 H13a2b
TIT021 J2b M12
A Genetic History of the Near East from an aDNA Time Course Sampling Eight Points in the Past 4,000 Years

ID Period Sex (genetic) Y Haplogroup MT Haplogroup
SFI-56 Iron Age II female - U1a1a
SFI-55 Iron Age II male J H2a
SFI-43 Iron Age III female - T2c1+146
SFI-50 Iron Age III female - U1a
SFI-36 Iron Age III female - R0a1a
SFI-42 Iron Age III male J1-M267 H2a
SFI-45 Iron Age III male J-M304 T2a1b1
SFI-34 Iron Age III male J1-M267 T1a2
SFI-35 Iron Age III male I2a1b-M436 R0a1a
SFI-39 Iron Age III male H2-P96 I1b
SFI-44 Iron Age III male J1a2a1a2-P58 T2c1+146
SFI-47 Iron Age III male G2a2a1a2-L91 W6
SFI-20 Hellenistic female - H41
SFI-5 Hellenistic male Q1b-M346 K1a5a
SFI-12 Hellenistic male E1b1b1a1a2-V65 H14a
SFI-24 Early Roman female - H8b
SFI-33 Early Roman female - T1
SFI-11 Early Roman male G2a2b-L30 N1b1
SFI-15 Early Roman male G2a2b1a2-M3302 I1c1
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